Stakeholders in landscape management
From the actors and managers of the land to the ones who are directly (neighbours) and indirectly (interest groups) affected by the land use decision-making, landscape management and its valorisation takes place within a policy arena with a high diversity of stakeholders. They cover primary (individuals and private bodies of the local and farming community) and secondary types of stakeholders (groups and organisations), such as public and sectorial bodies, trusts, boards. Stakeholders can be either directly affected by landscape management (mainly private bodies) or they interest is affected (mainly groups and organizations).
Knowledge, values and motivation of farmers
The different actors and stakeholders with their specific knowledge and information base as well as their values, interests and preferences represent an important factor in the mechanism between landscape policy, landscape management and its socio-economic valorisation. First, through their participation (or non-participation) especially farmers and other actors involved in landscape management and providers of landscape services determine the implementation success of landscape policies (policy efficiency). Second, farmers and land managers represent the main implementing actors of (financially incentivised, voluntary) landscape management measures, the provision of services, but also the valorising of these services for regional competitiveness. However, to which extent farmers will participate in the landscape management and the uptake of diversification measures or the adoption of direct marketing and short food supply chains is strongly depending of the character of the farm household and business structure as well as the related attitude and aspiration of the farmer. Also their different roles as land manager, land owners and participants in the local communities have to be taken into consideration.
The depending on individual roles, perception and values also stakeholders, who are affected by landscape management, differ in the preferences for landscape and the ecosystem services they should deliver, including nature protection (conservationists), agricultural production (farmers) or cultural values (local residents and visitors), affecting the landscape's contribution to rural competitiveness and welfare. But even within stakeholder groups, preferences for landscapes and their specific features comprehensive differences might occur. This is for instance the case for visual landscape preferences of individuals.
Rogge E., Dessein, J., Gulinck,H. (2011). Stakeholders perception of attitudes towards major landscape changes held by the public: The case of greenhouse clusters in Flanders. Land Use Policy 28, 334-342.